The surface interacts with the atmosphere exchanging mass and energy. We can provide you with data and calculations on the first meters of the ground using monitoring devices or models.

Cave monitoring

Cave monitoring using CO2 sensors, close to saturation relative humidity and temperature probes.

Borehole instrumentation

Borehole instrumentation using PT100, PT1000, thermocouples, thermistor chains.

Trench instrumentation

Trench instrumentation using soil moisture sensors.

Surface albedo

Albedo measurement using four component radiometers.

Snow height

Snow height using ultrasonic sensors.


# We had never been asked for a meteorological station inside a cave and at the beginning it sounded easy. No vandalism, no radiation interfering the temperature probes, no animals, no rain neither rime freezing or snow. It sounded like placing a weather station in the office!. But caves are not the easiest places to work in. Special precautions regarding security must be taken due to slippery surfaces and low ceilings with threatening stalactites. From a technical point of view the difficulties come from not having sun for powering systems, no GPRS signal for communications and the worst of all: humidity always close to 99.9%. Fortunately, working together with our client we found a great and robust solution.

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